Whether you challenge negative thought patterns and emotions or greet them with acceptance, there is more to psychotherapy than the widely practiced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). There is certainly no universal formula when it comes to therapy. The style, approach, and expectations are all as unique as the person seeking treatment. Research has consistently shown that psychosocial interventions, including talk therapy, peer support groups, and education about coping strategies and problem-solving, can improve aspects of bipolar disorder that medication alone does not address. These interventions reduce relapse rates and improve overall functioning. Individuals regularly attending counselling sessions often report that their therapists offer validation, insight, and empathy that a spouse, family member, or friend cannot always provide.
While CBT is one of the most well-known and studied forms of psychotherapy aimed at making permanent behaviour changes by shifting negative patterns in thinking and behaviour, it is just one type of problem-solving therapy that can lead to a more productive and happier life. Other approaches – some building on CBT principles and others incorporating mindfulness techniques – may be better tailored to an individual’s specific needs.
Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is a modified form of CBT created to treat borderline personality disorder but later extended to other mood and behavioural disorders. Research has shown positive outcomes for individuals with bipolar disorder who receive DBT interventions. This therapeutic approach balances teaching acceptance while promoting change through mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness, and “walking the middle path.”
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) encourages individuals to be willing to feel complex emotions rather than suppressing them. Through mindfulness practice, ACT helps people accept their internal experiences without being consumed. ACT also clarifies values and commits actions toward building a meaningful life.
Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT) targets relationship difficulties and circadian rhythm disturbances commonly experienced by individuals with bipolar disorder. By developing routines for daily activities and interactions, IPSRT aims to improve mood stability and relationships while also helping individuals recognize signs of upcoming episodes.
Other therapy options for bipolar disorder include psychodynamic therapy, family-focused therapy, art therapy, and narrative therapy. It’s important to note that many practitioners adopt a mix-and-match philosophy regarding these different therapeutic approaches.
Regardless of the type of therapy used, some strategies are helpful for everyone. These include “coping ahead of time” to prepare for difficult situations, practicing mindfulness in day-to-day activities, defusing overwhelming thoughts and emotions by describing them neutrally, and writing one’s own story to foster positive self-perception and personal growth.
Overall, successful therapy relies on building a respectful and trustworthy relationship with the therapist. Therapy is not a one-size-fits-all approach but an individualized process considering the unique needs and circumstances of each person seeking treatment.